Dave Richards AA7EE

February 26, 2015

A Popcorn QRP Regen Receiver and Lots More Air-Spaced Variable Capacitors

Many of us in the home-brewer community were really disappointed when Todd VE7BPO recently discontinued his popular and very through-provoking site “The QRP/SWL Homebuilder”. An archive of the site is available for download in pdf form and is a great resource. Though not quite the same as having the site, it’s great to have a copy of it for reference. Todd was having some issues with the site. He didn’t take it down due to lack of enthusiasm on his part and by way of proof, he’s back in style, with the new “Popcorn QRP – Scratch Homebrew Component-Level Radio Electronics” blog. It’s great – just like having his old site back. Todd combines circuit analysis and a theoretical approach with a strong leaning towards practical circuits that can be built by the home experimenter. Economy of design and performance are both considered, and from reading the accounts of Todd’s exploits, one suspects he is having a complete blast. If you haven’t visited Todd’s current blog or his previous site before, please note that the intent isn’t to provide the home-builder with complete step-by-step instructions on how to build a series of projects. This is circuit-level stuff, but if you’ve had a little experience at building circuits from schematics, all the circuits presented are tried and tested by our faithful protagonist, VE7BPO aka retired Professor Vasily Ivanenko.

All this is leading up to something, and that something is that our intrepid experimenter recently announced he had been revisiting the subject of regenerative receivers. He had built 4, and was sharing one of them with us on his blog. Happy, happy, joy, joy! Even better, this circuit was the same basic topology that I used in The Sproutie – a  circuit that separated the Q-multiplier and detector into separate stages. It’s an arrangement that is well-behaved and performs well. The regen control, a resisitive component, exhibits no hysteresis, and the addition of an RF preamp means that the circuit doesn’t suffer from common mode hum. If you build it well, it will be frequency-stable too, but that part is up to you 🙂

The blog-post is here. It is based on the regen circuit published by Makota 7N3WVM, whose website is a treasure trove of circuits for the home builder. You’ll notice great similarity to the circuit of Nicky’s TRF that first appeared in SPRAT Issue 70 in 1992, and N1BYT’s WBR from QST Aug 2001. What’s really interesting though, is that Mr Ivanenko has added a bipolar transistor (a 2N4401) to the J310 FET infinite impedance detector, to turn it into a hycas (hybrid cascode) pair in order to increase the level of audio from the detector, as well as the reverse isolation, which can never hurt, right? Great idea! His circuit includes a bipolar RF preamp in common base mode to add isolation of the oscillator from the antenna, as well as a little bit of gain, and a 2-transistor preamp after the detector that he has used in other “popcorn” designs. He also makes his argument for continued use of the LM386 as a final audio amp in this post. The description in the 2nd paragraph, of the folklore surrounding regens is mirth-inducing – and spot-on.

I know that at least a few builders are considering making their own Sproutie and if you are still at the planning stage, you might want to think about Todd’s version of the front end. I haven’t tried it (yet) but Todd ain’t no slouch 🙂  If I were to incorporate it into my next regen build, my current thinking is to use his front end, and feed it into a one-stage active audio filter using a 5532 op-amp or similar, and then into a nice, low-noise LM380 with it’s fixed amount of 34dB gain. If I ever do this, I can promise you two things –

a) it will be many months, maybe even a year before I do it, because I am very slow at these things and

b) I’ll show you the circuit of my AF stages so you can join it up with Todd’s (ahem, I mean Vasily Ivanenko’s) front end circuit

 

Todd just revealed 2 encouraging pieces of news –

a) He just ordered some black and red chicken-head knobs for his next project and

b) He has decided to spend another 2 weeks working on regens

If you don’t already follow Popcorn QRP, it’s well worth adding to your RSS reader, bookmarks bar or similar.

 

The rest of this post may be a little annoying to those who have limited bandwidth connections, though I imagine anyone who is still surfing the internet on a dial-up connection or a very slow mobile connection learned long ago not to come here 🙂 I recently acquired some more air-spaced variable capacitors and I’d like to share some photos of them with you for no other reason than short-term visual gratification! As always, my preferred brand is Hammarlund. Not only are they of high quality, but I happen to like the way they look as well. They are drop-dead gorgeous.

I’ll start with a piece that was acquired a few months earlier, before the current flurry of buying activity. This is an MCD-50-M and may well end up as the main tuning capacitor of my next regen, unless I happen to find another MCD-35-MX like the one that was used for tuning The Sproutie. MCD means that is is a double-ganged unit (unlike the single-ganged MC units), 50 is the maximum capacity of each section, and the M at the end refers to the fact that the offset rotor plates give it a “midline” capacity characteristic, keeping the rotation vs frequency characteristic reasonably linear. Nickel-plated brass vanes for a good temperature coefficient, and all mounted on a high-Q ceramic base. Perfection! Look at those bright and shining never-been-soldered-to-before terminals –

Leaping forward in time to a couple of weeks ago, this MC-200-M “midget condenser” came into my life sporting an older original box, in almost as good condition as the capacitor itself. I love the graphic design on these older boxes –

Then came my haul of just a few days ago. I bought them all from the same seller. The boxes are a bit beaten up, but the capacitors are in great condition. First off, here’s the group shot-

Among them were two of these HFA-100-A’s. If you’re as picky as I am, these are not ideal for maximum stability in a VFO or receiver tuning control, as the vanes are only supported at one end. It would be fine as an antenna trimmer where it’s placed in series with the antenna lead, or as a reaction control, in a regen where a variable capacitor is used for this function. I’m not sure what material the vanes are made of in these parts –

In the same vein (vane?), I also scored an HF140. What a great part. It offers two methods of mounting. If I possibly could, I’d use both of them for maximum stability. This variable cap could be mounted underneath a chassis so that the nut on the threaded shaft helps to hold the front panel to the chassis, while the mounting bracket was screwed to the underside of the main chassis for extra rigidity. Rigidity is a very good thing with regens 🙂 –

An MCD-100-M (2 x 100pF).  Nickel-plated brass vanes, a ceramic base (steatite actually), regular plate-spacing, and a “midline” capacity characteristic . Such a beautiful part. What else can I say? The US was once a manufacturing powerhouse –

Also in the haul were 3 x MC-20-S. I used one of these (from another buy) as the fine tuning control in The Sproutie –

Lastly, here’s an MC-50-MX. Single gang with capacitance swing of 10.5 – 53pF, midline capacity characteristic (for reasonably linear rotation-frequency relationship) and extra-wide plate spacing. This would be great for a VFO –

 

I also very recently acquired this National gear drive with 3 x 250pF variable capacitor attached. My relative lack of knowledge on National products caused me to misjudge. I discovered when it arrived, that the gearbox is a later model that is smaller than the older “classic” National gearbox drives. Also, it doesn’t have an eccentric bushing for driving the micrometer-style dial. I read somewhere that National stopped using the classic dial in their receivers in response to upgraded mil-specs that negated it’s use. It’s in good condition and turns freely, though the grease is old and it would probably benefit from a cleaning and re-greasing. I may well put this one up for sale –

There’s a little bit of surface dust on the plates and shaft but otherwise, it’s clean, and those terminals have never been soldered to. Amazing! –

No cracks in the insulators –

There’s only one detail that would require some attention from a builder, and that is that it looks as if the underside received a thwack at some point – either that, or it’s a manufacturing defect. One of the mounting holes is distorted and would need re-drilling and re-tapping if it is to be used. I think this is a solvable issue –

Another view showing this issue –

Old grease on the gears. If I were to use this, I’d want to clean out and re-lubricate, but that’s par for the course with these old yet still very serviceable gearboxes –

 

That’s it for now. Hope you didn’t mind me sharing all these pictures with you. As a parting thought, if you’re still planning to construct a regen and haven’t completely decided what to build, remember to take a look at VE7BPO’s Regen #4.

 

 

July 6, 2011

Common-Mode Hum Issue With VRX-1 Fixed and YouTube Video Posted

In the last post I mentioned a hum issue that I’d been having with the VRX-1 that I bought as a kit from 4SQRP. When I related that it only happens on connecting the antenna, Jason NT7S told me it was probably common-mode hum. For a better description, refer to EMRFD, but my layman’s understanding is that it is caused by signal from the local oscillator being radiated by the antenna, picked up by AC wiring in your house, and re-radiated with the 60Hz component from your AC supply imposed on it (which the receiver then picks up).  The solution is to prevent the receiver from radiating, and an RF pre-amp can do this.

The first place I looked for a suitable schematic was Todd VE7BPO’s site and lo and behold, I found one (not – this link no longer works, as the preamp was on Todd’s old site).  It uses a J310 JFET in common gate configuration.

I’m feeling the need to make some kind of excuse for the messy look of the circuits I have built Manhattan style. Part of the reason is that I’m not as disciplined with my building technique as are masters of Manhattan like Jim Kortge K8IQY and Chuck Adams K7QO. The other part of it is that I think I need to recalibrate the way I look at my projects and reign in my OCD tendencies. With an experimental project like the VRX-1, it was inevitable that bits would get added on, and it would be a work in progress for a while.

Here’s the completed RF pre-amp board:

And here it is installed in the VRX-1. It cured my common-mode hum problems beautifully, by the way:

If you’d like to hear how it sounds, I created a YouTube account for my ham radio shenanigans, and the video of the VRX-1 is here:

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